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Blog Caribbean 5.0

Blog Caribbean 5.0

Mexico lindo

Posted on August 1, 2022 at 11:20 AM

Mexico lindo

 

DRAFT 2.0

 

31 juli 2022

 

Om practische redenen gaan wij niet in op de pre-koloniale periode. In deze perdiode was er een indrukwekkende indiaanse beschaving. Het ontmoeten met deze beschaving creeerde een deling in de samenleving die tot en met heden relevant is.

Een aantal jaren eerder waren de Spanjaarden al gestrand in Mexico, maar in 1519 Cortes vaart vanuit Havana en verovert Mexico. Het katholieke geloof gaat een dominante invloed uitoefenen. In 1527 wordt het bisdom Mexico opgericht.

In 1535 wordt het onderkoninkrijk Nieuw-Spanje opgericht. In 1691werd Texas veroverd.

In 1808 grijpt Napoleon Bonaparte in in Spaanse aangelegenheden. Er is een revolutie in Spanje. Het zaadje van Mexicaanse onafhankelijkheid ontkiemt. De onfhankelijkheidstrijd begint in 1810. In 1821 wordt de onafhankelijkheid gewonnen. In 1824 wordt de federale grondwet afgekondigd en dus de Estados Unidos Mexicanos georganiseerd.

Tussen 1846-1848 is er oorlog tussen Mexico en de Verenigde Staten.

In 1848 werd Mexico gedwongen de helft van zijn grondgebied af te staan. De oorlog plaveide de weg voor weer een machtsovername van 1853. De nieuwe regering (1855) had een liberaal karakter en schafte privileges voor kerk en leger af. De proclamatie van de liberale grondwet van 1857 leidde tot de Hervormingsoorlog tussen liberalen en conservatieven, die in 1861 uitliep op een liberale overwinning. Deze kondigde een moratorium op het afbetalen van schulden af, wat leidde tot een interventie van Spanje, Frankrijk en het Verenigd Koninkrijk. Nadat duidelijk was geworden dat de Fransen met steun van de Mexicaanse conservatieven in Mexico een marionettenkeizerrijk wilden vestigen, trokken de Britten en Spanjaarden zich terug. Na een aanvankelijke nederlaag stond het Franse leger een jaar later alsnog in Mexico-Stad. De Oostenrijkse aartshertog Maximiliaan van Habsburg werd geïnstalleerd als keizer.

 

In 1861 begint een Franse invasie, met steun van Mexicaanse conservatieven. In 1864 bereikt Maximiliaan Mexico en wordt keizer. Maar in 1867 wordt Maximiliaan gefucileerd en trekken Franse troepen zich terug uit Mexico.

1877-1911 is het Porfirio Dias-tijdperk. Porfirio Díaz, een liberale generaal uit de strijd tegen de Franse interventie, greep in 1876 de macht. Hij liet de democratische instituties op papier bestaan, maar regeerde in feite als een dictator. Zijn regering, het Porfiriaat, kenmerkte zich door modernisering, vooruitgang en economische groei, maar ook door onderdrukking en armoede bij een groot deel van de bevolking.

1910-1920 is de revolutionaire periode. De betrekkingen tussen de Verenigde Staten en Mexico zijn gespannen als gevolg van conflicten over de controle over de olie-industrie.

In 1917 werd een nieuwe grondwet geproclameerd, waarin onder andere rechten van arbeiders en landverdelingen geregeld werden en de macht van de geestelijkheid verder aan banden gelegd werd. In 1920 vaardigde een nieuwe regering vaardigde amnestie uit, waarna de laatste revolutionaire tegenstanders de wapenen neerlegden.

De Mexicaanse Revolutie werd gevolgd door de Grote Depressie, die leidde tot een ernstig gefragmenteerde samenleving en zeer zwakke instellingen. In 1929 werden alle facties en generaals van de Mexicaanse Revolutie verenigd in één partij, de Nationale Revolutionaire Partij (NRP), met als doel het land te stabiliseren en interne conflicten te beëindigen. Tijdens de volgende regeringen, sinds 1928, werden veel van de revolutionaire idealen uitgevoerd. In 1938 vindt de onteigening van buitenlandse oliemaatschappijen plaats.

De NRP werd later omgedoopt tot de Mexicaanse Revolutiepartij en ten slotte de Institutionele Revolutionaire Partij. Na verloop van tijd werd het systeem, een “verkiezingsautoritarisme” om te blijven aan de macht.

Mexico werd hiermee een toonbeeld van stabiliteit in het altijd onrustige Latijns-Amerika, echter ten koste van politieke vrijheden. In 1968 grepen studenten de Olympische Spelen van dat jaar aan om de aandacht te vestigen op het autoritaire karakter van de Mexicaanse regering. Het betekende een omslagpunt, steun voor de PRI was niet meer vanzelfsprekend.

In 1982 kwam het land in een zware economische crisis terecht. President Miguel de la Madrid gooide het roer om, en begon een programma van bezuinigingen en privatiseringen.

De presidentsverkiezingen van 1988 markeerden een keerpunt in de Mexicaanse politiek, aangezien ze de eerste serieuze bedreiging vormden voor de partij die aan de macht was door een oppositiekandidaat.

De PRI corruptie en de non-reactie van de Mexicaanse regering na de aardbeving van 1985 deden het vertrouwen in de PRI tot een dieptepunt zakken, zodat de partij steeds vaker haar toevlucht moest nemen tot verkiezingsfraude om aan de macht te blijven. In presidentsverkiezingen van 1988 de, die hij slechts gewonnen werd door de PRI-kandidaat Carlos Salinas nadat de PRI grootschalige verkiezingsfraude had gepleegd. Salinas intensiveerde het neoliberale beleid. Salinas leek de economie te kunnen herstellen en tekende de Noord-Amerikaanse Vrijhandelsovereenkomst (NAFTA) met de Verenigde Staten en Canada, maar in het laatste jaar van zijn regering ging alles mis: in Chiapas kwam het Zapatistisch Nationaal Bevrijdingsleger (EZLN) in opstand, PRI-presidentskandidaat werd vermoord en enkele weken na de inhuldiging van Colosio's opvolger, Ernesto Zedillo, stortte de economie na een devaluatie van de peso ineen. Nadat Salinas' familie in verband werd gebracht met de moord en verscheidene corruptieschandalen verliet hij het land.

De presidentsverkiezingen van 1994 werden beschouwd als de eerste relatief vrije verkiezingen in de moderne Mexicaanse geschiedenis. Ernesto Zedillo van de PRI won. Na hulpprogramma's van de Verenigde Staten wist de Mexicaanse economie zich te herstellen en tegen het eind van Zedillo’s termijn was het verlies van 1994 goeddeels ingehaald.

Bij de presidentsverkiezingen van 2000 raakte de partij voor het eerst in 71 jaar de macht kwijt aan Vicente Fox van de PAN. Fox’ economische beleid bleek niet echt af te wijken van dat van Zedillo.

Fox werd in 2006 opgevolgd door partijgenoot Felipe Calderón. Onder diens bewind escaleerde de strijd tegen de drugscriminaliteit tot de Mexicaanse Drugsoorlog.

In 2012 wist de PRI het presidentschap terug te winnen in de persoon van Enrique Peña Nieto. In de laatste jaren van zijn ambtstermijn werd het vertrouwen in de PRI wederom ernstig geschaad.

In 2018 won Andrés Manuel López Obrador de presidentsverkiezingen met de belofte de corruptie uit te roeien.

In april 2022 stemmen de Mexicane over het optreden van Amlo in historische terugroepverkiezingen. Ondanks Covid-sterfgevallen en aanhoudend drugsgeweld, geven de kiezers aan dat de president zijn termijn mag afmaken. De op een na grootste economie van Latijns-Amerika (Mexico) houdt echter geen presidentsverkiezingen - de volgende is pas in 2024.

 

Miguel Goede

 

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